Thailand (until 1939 and 1946–49 Siam) is a state in Southeast Asia, on the Gulf of Thailand, with (2018) 69.4 million residents; The capital is Bangkok.
According to directoryaah, Thailand is a constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia with the metropolis of Bangkok as its capital. The core area of Thailand is the fertile plains of the Chao Phraya , which is enclosed in a horseshoe shape by mountainous land. In the east lies the steppe- like Khorat plateau. The mountain ranges in the west continue south to the Malay Peninsula. There is a tropical monsoon climate with high rainfall from May to October. The population belongs predominantly to the group of the Tai peoples. There are also larger minorities of Chinese and Malays. The mountain peoples in the north are partly stateless and are socially severely disadvantaged. About 95% of the population are Buddhists, the Malays in the south are mostly Muslims.
Thai immigrants from the north established the Ayutthaya Empire in the 14th century. It was destroyed by Burmese troops in 1767. In 1782 General Chaophraya Chakri (* 1737, † 1809) ascended the throne and founded the Chakri dynasty, which is still ruling today. In the age of colonialism, Thailand always remained independent. In 1932 it became a constitutional monarchy. The military took power in 1938 and renamed Siam Thailand. In the decades that followed, the political system fluctuated between brief periods of liberal government and longer periods of military rule. A military government has been in power again since the coup of 2014 and the new constitution of 2017.
Economically, Thailand is one of the emerging countries after the rapid industrial upswing. Tourism is a mainstay of the economy. The main agricultural export products are rice, natural rubber and pineapple. Thailand maintains intensive economic and political relations with the USA, as well as with China and Japan.
The development from 2014
On May 20, 2014, the army leadership declared martial law; on May 22, 2014, it also took over government power and suspended the constitution. A transitional constitution (entered into force on July 22, 2014) cemented the power of the military junta organ National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) and its chairman, General Prayuth Chan-ocha , who also assumed the office of head of government had. The NCPO retained sovereignty over all legislative, executive and judicial matters under the transitional constitution. The Transitional Parliament, the National Legislative Assembly with members selected by the NCPO, appointed Prayuth Chan-ochaon August 21, 2014 as Prime Minister, which the King confirmed on August 25, 2014. A constitutional commission was given the task of drafting a new constitution. On January 23, 2015, Yingluck became Shinawatra removed from office retrospectively by the interim parliament on charges of negligence in monitoring a subsidy program for rice farmers. She was also banned from any political activity for five years. Martial law was repealed on May 1, 2015. The National Reform Council (NRC) voted in September 2015 against the draft of a new constitution drawn up by the Constitutional Commission. A new draft constitution was therefore drawn up by March 2016, which was finally approved by the population in a referendum on August 7, 2016. The draft gave the military, inter alia. the right to appoint all senators and to appoint a head of government without being elected. On October 13, 2016, König died after a long illness Bhumibol Aduljadeh. Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha announced on the same day that Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn should succeed him. The powers of the head of state were initially taken over by Prem Tinsulanonda in his function as President of the Privy Council. On December 1, 2016, Maha Vajiralongkorn accepted the constitutional invitation of the President of the National Legislative Assembly to ascend the throne as Rama X. The actual beginning of the new period of rule was dated on October 13, 2016 in a declaration by the Prime Minister. The new constitution came into force on April 6, 2017.
The first parliamentary elections after the military coup of 2014 took place on March 24, 2019. The opposition party Pak Pheu Thai was able to win the most seats (136) in the House of Representatives due to a higher number of direct mandates. Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha’s Pak Palang Pracharat party received 115 seats. The military junta was nevertheless able to consolidate its power, as it had previously appointed the 250 senators.
Foreign policy:In terms of foreign policy, Thailand sought a strategy of greater regional economic integration, particularly within the framework of ASEAN. The intensification of neighborly cooperation was, however, partly overshadowed by conflicts (including diplomatic tensions with Burma in 2002/03 over drug trafficking in the “Golden Triangle”). After the end of the war in Iraq, Thailand sent troops to Iraq in September 2003 to support reconstruction. After repeated border fights with several dead around the old temple complex Preah Vihear between Thailand and Cambodia, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) asked both sides to withdraw their troops in mid-July 2011. Because of the controversial border between the two countries, the IGH decided in 1962 that Preah Vihear belongs to Cambodia. However, the dispute over it flared up again in February 2011 after UNESCO declared the temple a World Heritage Site. In November 2013, the ICJ upheld its ruling from 1962.
Hat Yai [ha ː d a ], Town in Southern Thailand, near the border with Malaysia, (2018) 158 900 residents; Rubber Research Institute; Center of an agricultural area (rubber); important business and mall for visitors from Malaysia. Mainly Islamic Malay and Chinese traders live in Hat Yai; Rail hub on the connection between Bangkok and Singapore.
Surat Thani, Ban Don, city in southern Thailand, on the Malay Peninsula, port on the Gulf of Thailand, (2018) 131 800 residents; catholic bishopric; Center of an agricultural area (rubber, coconut palms, rice, etc.), fishing; Airport, ferry service to the island of Samui.