On the banks of the Salzach River, surrounded by the fabulous landscapes of the Alps and sparkling lakes, there is a small old city known to the whole world – Salzburg. The city of music and the city of music. The great Mozart was born and worked here, famous music festivals are held here, the Oscar-winning musical film The Sound of Music was filmed here, and even today eternal classical melodies sound in concert halls, churches, cafes and houses of Salzburg. The unique architecture of the city also appears as an inspirational symphony: magnificent baroque cathedrals, magnificent palaces in the traditions of the Renaissance, marvelous parks, medieval castles and narrow old streets, alluring with the aromas of cozy coffee houses and pastry shops. The history of the emergence of Salzburg goes back to ancient times, to Neolithic times and ancient Celtic settlements, but its current name, which is translated from German as “Salt Castle”, the city received thanks to the richest deposits of “white gold”. Bishop Rupert, who founded Salzburg in 700, also came here in search of salt. Today, guests from all over the world come to this wonderful city, because Salzburg captivates with its elegant appearance and spirituality. Here you can see places associated with the life of the brilliant Mozart and the world-famous Herbert von Karajan, wander around the Old Town, included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, visit ancient palaces and museums, walk in luxurious parks, ride a horse fiacre, go to the ancient salt mines, to nearby ski resorts and crystal-clear mountain lakes, and, of course, to enjoy music of different genres during the annual Salzburg festivals.
Salzburg – the capital of the federal state of the same name, the fourth largest city in Austria, is located on the banks of the Salzach River, at the northern foot of the Alps. The area of Salzburg is 65.678 km², and the population is more than 150,000 thousand people.
The history of Salzburg covers a very significant period. The first settlements, according to archaeological excavations, were on the site of the modern city back in the Neolithic, then there was a Celtic settlement conquered in the 1st century BC. e. the Romans, and, starting from 45 AD. e., which became the colony of Yuvavum – one of the main settlements of the Roman province of Noricum. However, the founding date of Salzburg is considered to be 700, when Bishop Rupert built two monasteries here, which have survived to this day and became the beginning of the future city – the male Benedictine abbey of St. Peter and the convent of Nonnberg. At the end of the 8th century, the city received the name Salzburg – “Castle of Salt”, to which it owes numerous salt deposits in the district. In 798 the Bishops of Salzburg elevated their status to become Prince-Archbishops and their power continued until 1803. The principality reached its peak in the late 16th – early 17th centuries. In 1622, the University of Salzburg was founded, in 1628 a magnificent city cathedral was built, and in 1767 one of the oldest road tunnels in Europe was cut under the Mönchsberg mountain. In 1810, the city was transferred to Bavaria, and in 1816, by decision of the Vienna Congress, Salzburg became part of Austria.
Salzburg is a city of history, it is replete with attractions, including:
Mozart’s residential house (“Dancemaster’s House”) – Mozart lived here from 1773 to 1780. He composed “Re pastore” here, began the operas “The Imaginary Gardener” and “Idomeneo”.
Residenzplatz – The central square of the old town. The appearance of the square was formed at the beginning of the 17th century, during the restructuring of the city under the guidance of Italian architects. On the square is located:
Residence of the Archbishop, built in 1619, luxurious interiors were created until the middle of the XVIII century. On the third floor there is a museum “Residence Gallery” – a collection of medieval European paintings.
New Residence – located opposite the Old Residence, built in 1602, was originally the bishop’s guest house. An old clock (1873) and 35 bells (1705) are installed on the tower of the New Residence. The building houses the Zattler Museum, the main exhibit of which is a panorama of the city.
Fountain Residenzbrunnen– located in the very center of the square, built in 1661.
Benedictine abbey of St. Peter – founded by St. Rupert around 690, functions as a monastery to the present, located at the foot of the Mönchsberg mountain. Separate parts of the abbey and the monastery cathedral are open to tourists. Cathedral of St. Peter in the abbey was built in 1143, other buildings of the abbey – in the XVII-XVIII centuries; the cathedral is decorated with unique paintings and stucco, the relics of St. Rupert.
The Franciscan Church (Franziskanerkirche) is the third largest church in the Old Town, located next to the Abbey of St. Peter, built in the Baroque and Gothic traditions in 1223.
Salzburg Museum of Modern Art – consists of two buildings in two places of interest: the Rupertinum in the heart of the Old Town – a baroque building for new artistic ideas, and the Museum on the Mönchsberg mountain above the roofs of the Old Town – contemporary art of today.
Mount Kapuzinerberg – the mountain of the Capuchins rises above the river and the new city, the height is 214 meters above the city level. At the top of the observation deck and the Abbey of the Capuchins. Somewhat away from the top is Stefan Zweig’s villa.
Linzergasse Street is the main walking street on the right bank. On the street is the Church of St. Sebastian, built in 1512. Paracelsus, W. A. Mozart’s father, Leopold Mozart, and the most famous archbishop of Salzburg, Wolf Dietrich von Reitenau, are buried in the church cemetery.