Romania History – Post-Communism
With the fall of Ceauşescu, J. Iliescu, former Communist and leader of the National Salvation Front, later renamed the Social Democratic Party, was in power until 1995. Since the early 1990s, a transformation of the country’s economy was initiated through the restructuring of the industrial sector, the privatization of agriculture and the transition to a market economy, sparking violent protests over the heavy social costs. On the other hand, the political situation was characterized by the emergence of ever stronger nationalist and xenophobic pressures that crossed all political alignments. The opposition won the presidential elections for the first time in 1996 with E. Constantinescu, but already in the following consultations in 2000 Iliescu returned to the presidency.
● Having become an associated state of the EEC in 1993, according to Agooddir, the Romania Yugoslavia in 1999. In 2004 the country became part of NATO, in the same year the presidential elections were won by T. Băsescu, of the center-right Liberal Democratic Party, who announced a program of approaching a united Europe and fighting corruption. At the same time the legislative elections took place, from which a coalition government chaired by C. Tariceanu arose. After the signing of the accession treaty (2005), in 2007 the Romania, together with Bulgaria, entered the EU. In 2008, after the uncertain outcome of the political elections, another coalition government was formed, led by E. Boc.Already suspended from his functions by a center-left majority in 2007 but re-elected for a second term in 2009, Băsescu was dismissed by Parliament in July 2012 on charges of violation of the Constitution and usurpation of the role of the prime minister, who from April of the same year is held by V. Ponta, but the popular referendum for impeachment did not reach a quorum and Băsescu remained in office. In the legislative elections held in December 2012, the center-left coalition that supports the prime minister achieved a large victory, obtaining about 57% of the preferences against the 19% reported by the center-right opposition led by Băsescu. In the first round of the presidential consultations held in November 2014, the Social Democratic Prime Minister Ponta received over 40% of votes against the 30.5% awarded by the exponent of the Saxon minority K. Iohannis, who defeated him in the ballot obtaining the 54.5 % of the votes and taking over the presidential mandate from Băsescu. In November 2015, following the violent mass protests that broke out after the devastating fire that broke out in a nightclub in which at least 32 people lost their lives, Prime Minister Ponta and the entire Romanian government resigned, replaced in the same month by an executive technician led by Prime Minister D. Cioloș. Land early parliamentary elections, held in December 2016 with a turnout of 39%, they confirmed the left in power, with the Social Democratic Party obtaining 46% of the preferences, followed by the Liberal Democratic Party, in sharp decline with about 20% of the preferences, and the new formation the Union for the Salvation of Romania (Usr), in its first electoral experience at national level, which, winning 8.5% of the votes, entered Parliament as the third political force; in the same month, President Iohannis entrusted the Social Democrat S. Grindeanu with the post of prime minister. Deep social tensions, which resulted in numerous street demonstrations that mobilized the entire country, opened just one month after the new executive took office due to the approval in February 2017 of measures for the decriminalization of a series of crimes related to corruption. Despite the withdrawal of the decree, the protests have not subsided, and the demonstrators have continued to demand a moralization of the country and the resignation of the Grindeanu government. In the following June, the premier resigned from office, succeeding the Social Democrat M. Tudose, replaced in January 2018, after his resignation, by the Social Democrat VV Dăncilă. The European elections held in May 2019 showed a loss of consensus by the Social Democrats, who obtained about 23.3% of the consensus against 37.6% of the consultations in 2014, followed by the Alleanza 2020 coalition formed by the Union Saved Romania and by the Party of Freedom, Unity and Solidarity of the former Prime Minister Cioloș, which won with 21.4% of the votes as the second political force in the country. In October 2019, disheartened by Parliament and challenged by violent street demonstrations on charges of incompetence and corruption, Prime Minister Dăncilă was forced to resign, taking over from her position by L. Orban. The presidential elections held in the following November recorded the success of the outgoing president Iohannis in the first round with 33.6% of the votes, against the 23.8% won by the former premier Dăncilă, who defeated in the ballot winning over 65% of consents. In February 2020, the executive led by Orban was disheartened by Parliament following a motion presented by the opposition, while the premier regained confidence in the following month.
From 1 January to 30 June 2019, Romania held the presidency of the Council of the European Union.