Niue General Information
Background: The remoteness of Niue, as well as the cultural and linguistic differences between its Polynesian inhabitants and the inhabitants of the rest of the Cook Islands, have led to the fact that the island of Niue is governed separately. According to INDEXDOTCOM, the population continues to decline (from a peak of 5,200 in 1966 to 2,100 in 2000) due to significant emigration to New Zealand.
Location: Oceania, an island in the South Pacific, east of Tonga.
Geographic coordinates: 19° 02′ S. latitude, 169° 52′ W
Reference map: Oceania.
Area: total: 260 sq. km.; land surface area: 260 km2; water surface area: 0 km2
Comparative area: 1.5 times the area of Washington, DC.
Land borders: 0 km.
Coastline: 64 km.
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles; territorial waters: 12 nautical miles.
Climate: tropical; moderated by the southeast trade winds.
Relief: steep limestone cliffs along the coast, central plateau.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m; highest point: unnamed point near Mutalau village 68 m.
Natural resources: fish, fertile land.
Land use: arable land: 19%; cultivated land: 8%; pastures: 4%; forests and plantations: 19%; others: 50% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: no data.
Natural Hazards: Typhoons.
Current Environmental Issues: Growing attention is being paid to the loss of soil fertility due to traditional slash-and-burn agriculture.
International agreements on environmental protection: participant: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol, Desertification; signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea.
Geography Note: One of the largest coral islands in the world.
Population: 2 124 people (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: up to 14 years: no data; from 15 to 64 years: no data; over 65 years: no data.
Population growth: 0.5% (2001 est.).
Fertility: no data.
Mortality: no data.
Migration: no data.
Child mortality: no data.
Life expectancy: for the general population: not available; men: no data; women: no data;
General birth rate: no data.
Proportion of the adult population infected with HIV: no data available.
Number of people infected with HIV: no data.
Mortality due to AIDS: no data available.
Nationality: noun: Niuean; adjective: pertaining to Niue.
Ethnic groups: Polynesians (and about 200 Europeans, Samoans and Tongans).
Believers: followers of Ekalesia Niue (Church of Niue – a Protestant church closely associated with the London Missionary Society) 75%, followers of the “Church of Latter-day Saints” 10%, other 15% (predominantly Catholics, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Seventh-day Adventists).
Language(s): Polynesian, closely related to Tongan and Samoan, English.
Literacy: definition: no data; for the general population: 95%; men: no data; women: no data. State Name:
Common long form: no;
Common short form: Niue. Dependent state: self-government in free association with New Zealand; Niue is fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand is responsible for foreign policy.
State structure: self-governing parliamentary democracy.
Administrative division: no; note – there are no first-order administrative divisions as classified by the US government, but there are 14 districts, each with its own district council whose members are elected for 3 years.
Independence: On October 19, 1974, Niue gained self-government with a parliamentary form of government in free association with New Zealand.
National holiday: Waitangi Day (Wai-tangi Day), February 6 (1840) (establishment of British sovereignty over the island by the Treaty of Waitangi).
Constitution: adopted October 19, 1974 (Niue Constitutional Act).
Legal system: English common law.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) The UK and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner John BRYAN (since May 2000);
head of government: Prime Minister Sani LAKATANI (since 1 April 1999)
Government: the cabinet consists of the prime minister and 3 ministers; elections: hereditary monarchy; the prime minister is elected by the Legislative Assembly for a term of 3 years; elections last held 19 March 1999 (next to be held in March 2002); election results: Sani LAKATANI elected prime minister; percentage of votes in the Legislative Assembly: n/a.
Legislature: unicameral Legislative Assembly (20 seats; members are elected by popular vote for 3 years; 6 are elected from a general list and 14 represent districts); elections: last held 19 March 1999 (next to be held in March 2002); election results: distribution of votes between parties: no data; distribution of seats among parties: NPP 9, independents 11.
Judiciary: Supreme Court of New Zealand; Niue High Court.
Political parties and leaders: Niue People’s Action Party (NPP) (Sani LAKATANI).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: АСР, ESCAP (associate), FAO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO.
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-government in free association with New Zealand).
US Diplomatic Representation: none (self-government in free association with New Zealand).
Flag Description: yellow with the flag of Great Britain in the upper quarter near the hoist; the flag of Great Britain has five yellow five-pointed stars – a large one on a blue disk in the center and one small one on each of the branches of a straight red cross.
Economic overview: Government spending typically exceeds revenue, the gap being covered by New Zealand subsidies that are used to pay the salaries of civil servants. Niue has slashed government spending by cutting the government apparatus by almost half. The agricultural sector is almost entirely subsistence horticulture, although some crops are grown for export. The industry consists mainly of small businesses processing passion fruit, lime oil, honey and coconut milk. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of income. In recent years, the island has lost most of its population due to the emigration of residents to New Zealand. Efforts to increase GDP include the development of tourism and the financial services sector.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $4.5 million (1997 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: no data available.
GDP per capita: Purchasing Power Parity $2,800 (1997 est.).
Composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: no data; industry: no data; service sector: no data.
Proportion of the population below the poverty line: no data available.
Percentage distribution of household income or consumption: for the poorest 10% of households: n/a; by top 10% of households: no data.
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 1% (1995).
Labor force: 450 people (1992 est.).
Employment structure: the majority work on family farms; There are only paid jobs in government service, small businesses and the Niue Development Bureau.
Unemployment rate: no data.
Budget: income: no data; expenses: n/a, including capital investment – n/a.
Spheres of economy: tourism, handicraft production, food industry.
Growth in industrial production: no data available.
Electricity generation: 3 million kWh (1999).
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 100%; hydropower: 0%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 2.8 million kWh (1999).
Electricity export: 0 kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 0 kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: coconuts, passion fruit, honey, lime, taro, yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potato; pigs, poultry, cows.
Export: $117,500 (free on board, 1989)
Exports: canned coconut milk, copra, honey, passion fruit derivatives, papaya, root vegetables, lime, soccer balls, stamps, handicrafts.
Export partners: New Zealand 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia.
Import: $4.1 million (S.I.F., 1989).
Imports: foodstuffs, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, medicines.
Import partners: New Zealand 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Samoa, Australia, USA.
External debt: no data. Economic aid recipient: $8.3 million (1995)
Economic aid donor:
Currency: New Zealand dollar.
Currency code: NZD.
Exchange rate: NZD/USD – 2.2502 (January 2001), 2.1863 (2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996).
Fiscal year: April 1-March 31.
Telecommunications Telephone lines: 376 (1991).
Mobile cell phones: 0 (1991).
Telephone system: primitive system; internal: a single-wire telephone system connects all areas of the island; international: no data.
Broadcast stations: AM – 1, FM – 1, shortwave – 0 (1998).
Radio receivers: 1,000 (1997).
Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997).
TVs: no data.
Internet country code: nu
Internet service providers: 1 (2000).
Number of users: no data.
Transport Railways: 0 km.
Roads: total: 234 km; coated: 86 km; unpaved: 148 km (2001).
Ports and harbours: none; only anchorages.
Merchant fleet: none (2000 est.).
Airports: 1 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 1; from 1524 to 2437 m: 1 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways:
Branches of the Armed Forces: Police. Armed Forces – note: Defense is the responsibility of New Zealand.